PUBBLICHIAMO DI SEGUITO UN ARTICOLO GIUNTOCI DAL LONTANO UZBEKISTAN TRAMITE L'AVV. VITTORIO GIORGI CHE RINGRAZIAMO PER LA COLLABORAZIONE.
Chugurma- the best of the caps
Chugurma- the best of the caps
In Khivan khanate, special attention was given to quality and usability of headdress as during time of migration it was necessary to overcome the big distances on deserted or steppe land. Natural-climatic conditions demanded from cap perfection in universality and utilitarian. So chugurma appeared that satisfied all requirements and become national headdress. Chugurma has many advantages. Under such, by sight heavy, but actually easy cap creates a special microclimate. This ancient and unique headdress rescues in summer from overheat, and serves as protection against cold in the winter. Chugurma was sewed taking into account position occupied by person. The astrakhan fur was the symbol of belonging to high secular or holy order. Certainly, being an indicator of prestige and social status degree chugurma did cost not cheap. Therefore, nobody regret time and means on their manufacturing and acquisition. In the past, not everyone could afford headdresses. So, for example, fashionable high cap from astrakhan skins with long curly wool at cost was equaled to price of a camel or a cow with the calf. Khan, a viewfinder and other high-ranking officials dressed Chugurmas, executed with special taste, subtlety and elegance. Chugurma is also one of accessory symbols to a male. Therefore, in our neck of woods there is following wisdom: «If chugurma fells downs from the man it will be equivalent to his death». It is obviously the honor of this headdress. It is known from legends, that up to 30th years of the last century chugurma was used during girls' marriage. Chugurma with force was thrown at guy and if he fells down he was refused to marry that girl. Khorezm chugurma was differed with its variety in manufacturing techniques, presence of external signs and qualitative characteristics. They were sewed from good grey or golden astrakhan fur, or from magnificent fur of marten, otter, ox, and muskrat. Longhaired caps were also made from skins of special breed of rams with silky and curly wool of goatskins. Caps were sewed smart and every day. For celebratory caps preferred small curly fur of lambs. Black thin astrakhan skins are differing with highest quality. People of old age carried white chugurma, an average - grey, and young - colorful. In general, manufacturing technique is that: mutton skin is taken and properly cut. In a day, it is covered with a support or bitter sour milk, and is lies on the sun within 3 days then scrape out all greasing. From the skin that has passed processing for two - three hours can be sewed chugurma. From inside the cap is trimmed by dyed coarse calico and wadded lining is made. Only men traditionally manufactured Chugurma in Khoresm. The craft was demised; the masters who have seized this art in perfection were appreciated especially and were dear people in the settlements. Today in Khoresm manufacturing of chugurma has remained as a professional work. In reserve of Ichang-Kala in Khiva masters -chururmadoses, sew this headdress, so amazing foreign visitors, with big pleasure. Our interlocutor Mr. Shokirzhon Abdullaev is one of such masters of Khiva. His workshop reminds simultaneously both art salon, and museum. In one of the rooms, draped with peters ham, lay high and fluffy caps of various colors, sizes and styles. They remind small herd of thin-skinned sheep, lambs, and kids with dense, wavy and most gentle wool. Puffy papakhas looked heavy, but taking them we were convinced, how they are soft, easy and silky. «To make one chugurma from gentle silky fur, it needs the skin of one of ones and a half- two-month aged lamb», Sokirdjon says. From a skin of a three-monthly aged sheep, it can be made two caps. Now handicraftsmen make wide arrange of skin of the various quality, capable to satisfy any taste. For especially solemn occasions, remain high — to 25-30 sm chugurmas, very shaggy with long silky wool. Now majority of men of an average and advanced age prefer papakhas from the black and brown furs long curls of which shot pure silver. Young men carry mainly white color chugurma. Many people wear chugurma both in summer, and in winter, putting on under it simple one-color tubiteyka from soft fabric. «How they must be hot in such shaggy papakha, moreover in summer heat? » — ask tourists with surprise, having seen on the streets of Khiva old men in huge fur caps. They are always surprised, having heard as it seems to them playful answer: «Chugurma is the conditioner for a head». However, it is not a joke. Inhabitants of Khoresm from an antiquity carry this original and unique headdress. Beautiful, easy, convenient, full of nobleness Khorezm chugurmas are in demand in the tourist souvenir market and this factor organically supplements traditions of their manufacturing occurring in the people.